This paper will provide an overview of the state of knowledge on CSA. Subject It is now recognized that the definition of CSA includes both contact and non-contact abuse. CSA comprises any sexual activity perpetrated against a minor by threat, force, intimidation or manipulation. The array of sexual activities includes fondling, inviting a child to touch or be touched sexually, intercourse, rape, incest, sodomy, exhibitionism, or involving a child in prostitution or pornography.
Specifically, the percentage of African-American children who enter the system and remain in out-of-home care is greater than their proportion of the country's population Anderson, Racial disparities are even more pronounced in out-of-home care.
Researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners have divergent views on the causes of minority over-representation.
This phenomenon may be the result of a disproportionate need for services or of systematic racial influences on decision making at any number of points along the continuum of child welfare services, including reporting, investigation, substantiation, and placement.
Researchers have attempted to explore levels of need and to examine how race affects children's experiences at each of these points, but findings have been Literature review of child abuse. Where racial differences have been found, the reasons for these differences remain unclear.
One critical shortcoming of the research conducted to date is the lack of studies designed to explore child welfare professionals' perceptions of the issue of minority over-representation in the child welfare system.
Child welfare workers and managers, who are involved in day-to-day decision-making for children of all races at all points on the child welfare service continuum, are an important and untapped source of information about this phenomenon.
Their position affords them a unique perspective on the issue that should be included in any discussion of the child welfare system's response to children of color. The current study seeks to address this gap in the literature by exploring child welfare professionals' perceptions of the issue of over-representation.
The study provides critical information on the extent to which the perceptions of child welfare professionals are consistent with the literature on this issue. The qualitative methods Literature review of child abuse in this study have facilitated a collection of rich, detailed information not only about the overlap between the literature and practitioners' perspectives, but also about how and why the phenomenon occurs and what child welfare agencies are doing to address the issue.
Because of the exploratory nature of this study, which also involves a small sample, and is intended to refine research questions and generate hypotheses for future research studies on the topic of disproportionality, we begin with a literature review that draws on multiple published and unpublished studies.
This review allows for an examination of current theory and research on the issue of disproportionate minority representation in the child welfare system, and provides a context for this study and a framework for interpreting its findings. The review provides a starting point from which to explore the perceptions of child welfare professionals and the extent to which their practical experience is consistent with current theory and research.
Back to Top 2. Disproportionate need Those who argue that minority children and families have a disproportionate need for child welfare services point to the vulnerability of this population in terms of many social indicators, the most salient of which is poverty.
There has been a persistently strong relationship between poverty and minority status in the United States. Specifically, African-American and Hispanic children are more than twice as likely to live in poverty as non-Hispanic white and Asian-Pacific Islander children U. Bureau of the Census, The relationship between income and child maltreatment is supported by considerable research, including all three National Incidence Studies NIS conducted by the U.
Department of Health and Human Services. The study found that abuse is 14 times more common in poor families and neglect is 44 times more common in poor families.
This suggests that the incidence rate is The greater incidence of maltreatment among low-income families combined with the over-representation of families of color living in poverty suggests a plausible explanation for the disproportional representation of minority children in the child welfare system.
Racial bias and child welfare decision making Others argue that the disproportionate representation of minority children in the child welfare system is a result of differential treatment by race or racial bias Morton, Proponents of this theory suggest that differential treatment by race may be internal or external to the child welfare agency.
Chasnoff and colleagues' study of drug use during pregnancy provides an example of the way in which racial discrimination may increase the number of minority children reported to CPS. Their study found that although white and black women were equally likely to test positive for drugs, African-American women were ten times as likely to be reported to CPS after delivery.
One explanation of this finding is that health personnel tend to believe that drug use is more common in minority families and are more likely to suspect and report families of color. This results in a greater number of children of color coming into the child welfare system. This issue has tremendous bearing on minority over-representation in the child welfare system, given that drug abuse is currently seen as a major reason for child welfare involvement with families U.
Proponents of this theory also suggest that racial bias is endemic to child welfare agencies, which in many locales are administered and staffed by majority group members.
Critics posit that the child welfare system is not set up to support and serve minority families and children and that caseworkers' decisions about cases are influenced by race.
Some research has been done on the effect of caseworker characteristics, particularly race, on substantiation rates, but the findings have been inconsistent.
These findings are discussed below. Interactions between family risk and child welfare practice A third theory is based on investigations of minority children's trajectories through the child welfare system.
Barth and colleagues refer to this explanation as the multiplicative model. Intended to explain why the over-representation of minority children is so pronounced at the end of the child welfare continuum, specifically in foster care, Barth et al.
As a result, for those children for whom a report is made, there are small differences in the way that children of color are treated in the decision making process, possibly making it more likely that these children will enter and remain in the system. · I FAMILIAL CAREGIVERS’ PHYSICAL ABUSE AND NEGLECT OF CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW Foreword The Ministry of Social Policy and the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services are responsible for developing effective policies and programmes to address child abuse pfmlures.com /pfmlures.com · A literature review.
Office of the Senior Practitioner paper reviews the current literature about child sexual abuse with a focus on key How can the family and its members help protect an individual child against sexual abuse?
What is the role of community in protecting and supporting victims of child pfmlures.com The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to pfmlures.com://pfmlures.com Literature Review.
One of the most challenging and controversial issues facing the child welfare system is the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority pfmlures.com · A Literature Review Mary Barnish September HM Inspectorate of Probation • Second Floor • Ashley House • 2 Monck Street • London • SW1P 2BQ The co-occurrence of domestic violence and child abuse – p64 The nature, extent and impact of pfmlures.com+/http:/pfmlures.com Child abuse disregards the trust at the center of a child’s association with the world” ().
At the point when the essential relationship is one of betrayal, a negativepfmlures.com