University of sydney thesis

Foundation[ edit ] University council's first meeting in The origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts established in and the Sydney Technical College established in

University of sydney thesis

Persistent URL for this entry http: In the Sydney region, there were two main ways of disposing of the dead: Observations by David Collins suggest that the method of disposal was indicative of the deceased's age or status, with cremation being accorded to people beyond middle age.

Burial took place around estuaries or along the coastline and often occurred in shell middens. Carved trees were often associated with burials in south-Eastern Australia; there are some sites recorded in the late nineteenth century around Picton and Narellan but no descriptions survive from early colonists.

Rituals were associated with the preparation of the corpse and goods were sometimes buried with the deceased. Traditional Aboriginal burial practices continued in the outer regions of Sydney basin much later than around Port Jackson. Aboriginal people who frequented Sydney town were sometimes buried according to British customs on estates or in burial grounds.

Arabanoo died and Ballederry died were buried in the grounds of first Government House; Bennelong died and Nanbaree died were buried on the estate of James Squire at Kissing Point; Bungaree died was buried at Rose Bay; and Cora Gooseberry died was [media] buried in Devonshire Street Cemetery.

The fledgling township, struggling against the alien climate and conditions, could do little but dispose of the remains. Nothing survives of the first series of informal burial grounds established around the Rocks.

What little we do know is gleaned from incidental descriptions in official documents and letters. Little is known about the burials during the first five years of the colony. What we do know is due to the extensive research undertaken by Keith Johnson. From early correspondence and diary entries it seems the first informal burial grounds were located close to the infant township.

It is hard to reconcile the different descriptions. There are references to one at Dawes Point for mariners and seamen, another within the Rocks, possibly somewhere within the block today bounded by Essex, Gloucester, Grosvenor and Harrington streets, and a third behind the military barracks at Clarence Street.

It was established in late on the main road George Street on the outskirts of the settlement. Extended inthe cemetery was closed in January as it was full. The site remained dormant and neglected as the city grew around it until when the land was granted to the Sydney Municipal Council for the site of the town hall.

St John's Church of England Cemetery was established in and buried all denominations until other cemeteries were established. St John's Cemetery, Parramatta, [media] remains the earliest undisturbed colonial cemetery in Sydney with headstones dating back to [media] When the colony was established inlife expectancy was only around the thirties.

Infectious diseases or accidental deaths were the main causes of death. Infant mortality rates were high. Statistics prior to this date rely heavily upon church registers which vary in their information and reliability. The absence of a clergyman left gaps in the records.

Funeral customs Funerary customs from the mother country were readily incorporated into the daily lives of the colonists.

University of sydney thesis

Francois Peron, visiting Sydney in as part of the French expedition under Nicolas Baudin, recorded in his notebook that the public burial ground the Old Sydney Burial Ground was remarkable for a number of striking monuments, 'the execution of which is much better than could reasonably have been expected from the state of the arts in so young a colony'.

Thomas Shaughnessy was amongst the early undertakers to advertise the two branches of his business. Alongside the 'various assortment' of wardrobes, chests of drawers, and 'elegant side boards', he offered 'Funerals Furnished and conducted with greatest attention, from the plainest to the most sumptuous exhibition of mourning grandeur, and with a consistent regard to economy, without diminishing the necessary respectability'.

Funeral processions Funeral processions of prominent colonists were recorded in the Sydney Gazette as a sign of respect and, no doubt, a documenting of spectacle.

The first use of mutes as part of the funeral procession in was a remarkable occasion. The Sydney Gazette recorded upwards of mourners attended the funeral of Catherine Connell, wife of Mr John Connell of Pitt Street, in spite of the 'wetness of the afternoon'.

Not only was the procession noteworthy for the use of 'Two Mutes, bearing staves the first occasion of such being introduced in this Colony '; it formed 'one of the most numerous and respectable that in this Territory ever attended a departed Sister to the Grave'. Grace Karskens notes the English tended to gather for eating and drinking after the funeral, whereas the Irish gathered in the home around the laid out corpse, 'talking, eating, singing, getting drunk' and the conviviality continued after the funeral.

The funeral service was held at St James Church. The undertaker, William Beaver, dressed the corpse in a 'superfine shroud and cap'. A strong cedar coffin was placed inside 'a State Coffin covered with velvet and richly mounted with Gilt furniture with an engraved brass plate'.

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